Introduction to testing in Kohana 3

Table of contents:

Introduction

I'm working on a project largely written in Kohana and JavaScript + jQuery. (Under construction at fastask.net.) It's getting complicated enough to be worth having tests for it. While I'm at it, I'll blog about the process, for several reasons:

  1. There aren't that many resources on Kohana 3 and testing out there, I've found.
  2. Testing is hugely important for complex projects.
  3. Testing JavaScript is new to me (and fairly uncommon practice on the web, still).
  4. I plan to make this project publicly available fairly soon and it's an opportunity to share information about it with my readers :)

Along the way I will write about:

  1. Writing tests in Kohana 3, the basics (this post)
  2. Writing JavaScript + jQuery tests

    • so far I'm set on using JS Test Driver with QUnit or YUI Test
    • In-depth testing: using fixtures and mock objects, understanding code coverage, and more

Resources

Testing on Kohana 3 is easy. It's so easy, in fact, that I've written tests covering almost 1000 lines of code over one weekend.

Here are the necessary resources to get you going:

Setup

  1. Install PHPUnit. See their documentation.

    • I'm using Ubuntu and the package manager offers a relatively recent version. But, I wanted the latest. Installing it from source was so quick that I can't remember if I had any problems with it :)
    • Git a copy the unittest module: git submodule add git://github.com/kohana/unittest.git modules/unittest

    • Follow their installation instructions

    • I wanted code coverage reports. At the time of writing, these require the archive module, but they really don't have to. So I forked their unittest repo and rolled my own. My unittest repository doesn't require the archive module. I'll write about code coverage in a later post.

You're all set!

Running tests

I'm using the UI provided by the unittest module. That means I've added a route to it in my bootstrap.php file, and I'm accessing it at http://mysite/phpunit. From there, I pick the group of tests that I wish to run, and examine the results. Yep, it's that easy.

Here's how it looks: Running PHPUnit tests in Kohana 3

Writing tests

Start by reading the PHPUnit documentation. It's full of great examples. My project is fairly complex, and so I'm using TestSuites, TestCases, and fixtures. I will write about the latter in subsequent posts.

Here is a simple example of a TestCase:

<?php // application/tests/test_example.php

/**
 * Logged out, 403 forbidden everywhere.
 * @group anonymous
 * @group invalid
 */
class AnonymousTest extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase {
    protected function setUp() {
        Kohana::config('database')->default = Kohana::config('database')
                                                ->unit_testing;
    }

    function testFastask() {
        $fastask = new Controller_Fastask(new Request('in/t'));
        $fastask->action_t();
        $response = $fastask->request;
        $this->assertSame($response->headers['Content-Type'],
                          'application/json' );
        $this->assertSame($response->status, 403);
    }

    // ... more tests here ...
}

So what's happening here?

  • Use @group to pile tests together. I'm using the UI at http://mysite/phpunit to pick which to run at any time.
  • The anonymous group is handy to run all tests for actions performed by anonymous users.
  • You can use multiple groups, as many as you want.
  • I'm using an MySQL database to test in this example. This is a quick way to set the database Kohana uses when running tests:

    Kohana::config('database')->default = Kohana::config('database')
                                            ->unit_testing;
    
  • Set up a test database in MySQL and configure access to it in application/config/database.php

  • I have multiple tests, hence the setUp() method. If you only have one test, don't use this.

Test suites

Again, the PHPUnit documentation is golden.

Test suites come in handy when multiple tests can use the same setup. You can also share fixtures between tests this way. My main reason for using test suites was actually the gain in speed. This next example shows why.

<?php // application/tests/testsuite_fastask_search.php

/**
 * This suite tests search functionality in the main controller.
 * @group authenticated
 * @group fastask
 * @group fastask.search
 */
class FastaskSearchTestSuite extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestSuite
{
    public static function suite()
    {
        include_once '/path/to/kohana/application/testcases/' .
            'test_fastask_search.php';
        return new FastaskSearchTestSuite('FastaskSearchTest');
    }

    protected function setUp()
    {
        // Set database connection and log in the user.
        Kohana::config('database')->default = Kohana::config('database')
                                                ->unit_testing;
        Auth::instance()->login(TEST_USERNAME, TEST_PASSWORD);

        // Index data and start up the search daemon
        exec('indexer --all --config ' . SPHINX_CONF);
        exec('searchd --config ' . SPHINX_CONF);
    }

    protected function tearDown()
    {
        // Reset logins and log out the user
        $test_user         = Auth::instance()->get_user();
        $test_user->logins = 1;
        $test_user->save();
        Auth::instance()->logout();

        // Stop the search daemon
        exec('killall searchd');
    }
}

Explanation:

  • TEST_USERNAME and TEST_PASSWORD are used for multiple test suites, so I defined them in application/config/phpunit.php
  • I'm using the Sphinx search engine here to search through data. So I need to tell Sphinx to index my test data and start up the search daemon.
  • Obviously, doing this for every search test is gonna slow things down a lot.
  • I'm doing all these tests for authenticated users, so logging in and out for every test is also a waste.

Next, some test cases.

<?php // application/testcases/test_fastask_search.php

/**
 * @group loggedin
 * @group fastask
 * @group fastask.search
 */
class FastaskSearchTest extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase
{
    /**
     * Sets the data for search.
     */
    function providerSearch()
    {
        /* format for each test:
            array(
                search term
                status code to expect
        */
        return array(
            array('s' => 'asdfgh', 404),
            array('s' => '', 404),
            array('s' => 'nulla', 200),  // One of those lorem-ipsum results
        );
    }

    /**
     * Test search.
     * @dataProvider providerSearch
     */
    function testSearch($search, $status)
    {
        $_GET = array(
            'ep' => 1,
            's'  => $search,
        );
        $fastask = new Controller_Fastask(new Request('in/t'));
        $fastask->before();
        $fastask->action_t();
        $response = $fastask->request;

        $this->assertSame($response->headers['Content-Type'],
                          'application/json' );
        $this->assertSame($response->status, $status);

        $json = json_decode($response->response);
        $count = count($json->tasks);
        if ($count > 0) {
            foreach ($json->tasks as $task) {
                $follower_ids = array();
                foreach($task->followers as $follower) {
                    $follower_ids[] = $follower->id;
                }
                $follower_ids[] = $task->user_id;

                $this->assertContains(TEST_USER_ID, $follower_ids);
            }
        }
    }
}

The test case looks basically the same as it would if it were stand alone, but it has no setUp() or tearDown(). I was too lazy to write a separate test for having results, so I check the $count for testing the actual data.

Up next

Stay tuned for Kohana tests using fixtures, getting and using code coverage reports, and mock objects. Also, JavaScript tests!

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